Holland clusters all run on the Linux operating system, similarly to how your personal computer might run Windows or Mac OS. However, unlike Windows or Mac OS, our systems do not utilize a graphical user interface where you can use a mouse to navigate and initiate commands. Instead, we use a command line interface, where the user types in commands which are then processed and text output is displayed on the screen. The default shell used is Bash. Bash may seem complicated to learn at first, but with just a small handful of commands, you can do anything that you would usually do with a mouse. In fact, once people become proficient in Bash, many of them prefer it over graphical interfaces due to its versatility and performance.
Below, we have compiled a list of common commands and usage examples. For a more information, check out one of these references:
- Software Carpentry's "Introduction to the Bash Shell" Lesson - a great walkthrough of the basics of Bash designed for novice users
- Linux Users Guide - detailed information about the Linux command line and how to utilize it
- Linux Command Line Cheat Sheet - a quick reference for Linux commands. Offers a PDF version that you can print out.
Linux Commands Reference List:
|ls||list: Lists the files and directories located in the current directory|
|cd||change directory: this allows users to navigate in or out of file directories|
|mv||move: used to move a file or directory to another location|
|cp||copy: used to copy a file or directory to another location|
manual: displays documentation for commands
Note: Use up and down arrows to scroll through the text. To exit the manual display, press 'q'
|mkdir||make directory: creates a directory with the specified name|
remove directory: deletes a directory with the specified name
Note: rmdir only works on empty directories
|rm||remove: deletes file or files with the specified name(s)|
nano text editor: opens the nano text editor
Note: To access the menu options, ^ indicates the control (CTRL) key.
|clear||clear: clears the screen of all input/output|
less: opens an extended view of a file
Note: Use up and down arrows to scroll through the text. To exit the extended view, press 'q'
|cat||concatenate: sends file contents to standard input - used frequently with pipes|